5G

5G physical layer specifications

The 5G specifications have been published as the 3GPP 38 series. Here we look at the physical layer specifications. 38.211: Physical channels and modulation The scope is to establish the characteristics of the Layer-1 physical channels, generation of physical layer signals and modulation, and to specify: Definition of the uplink and Read more…

5G

5G New Radio Self-introduction

3GPP http://www.3gpp.org/ What is the 3GPP standard 5G why organizations cannot do without it?  Time flies, blink of an eye to 2017, from its inception in 1998, 3GPP continues to expand, driven by the members, involve a lot of work and hundreds of companies Collaboration, including network operators, terminal manufacturers, Read more…

5G

How 5G reduces data transmission latency

One of the essential requirements in 5G wireless systems is minimizing packet transmission latency for ultra-reliable and low latency (URLLC) services. One of the most prominent examples will be vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications. V2X certainly includes reaching vehicles with broadband services, but latency isn’t an issue there. Low latency in cellular Read more…

5G

Introduction to Latency towards 5G

In developing wireless 5G standards, we have an opportunity to further reduce latency, the time delays, in future wireless networks.  In fact, there appears to be unanimous opinion that 5G standards should have less than 1 millisecond (msec) of latency.[1],[2],[3],[4] But why? In considering results from neurology and studies of interactive Read more…

5G

5G new technology aspects

The total download capacity for a single 5G mobile cell must be at least 20Gbps, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has decided. In contrast, the peak data rate for current LTE cells is about 1Gbps. The incoming 5G standard must also support up to 1 million connected devices per square Read more…

5G

5G channel coding

Polar codes, a class of codes which allows to 1. attain the capacity of all symmetric memoryless channels (=those for which the capacity is attained for a uniform input distribution), 2. with an encoding algorithm of complexity O(N log N) (N = code length), 3. with a decoding algorithm of Read more…

5G

Wireless Networking basic concepts and understanding

Introduction As the basis for understanding the installation, operation, and troubleshooting of wireless LANs (WLANs), it is important that you have a good knowledge of how radio waves propagate through an environment. Every Wi-Fi deployment requires that the systems engineer understand the fundamentals of how radio waves move and react Read more…

5G

Frame Error Rate vs Bit Error Rate

There are multiple ways in which the quality of networking products can be assessed. Two clearly defined techniques are the measurement of bit error rate (BER) and frame error rate (FER). Many networking products are specified with the bit error rate that they achieve or support. BER is simply the Read more…